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- Strength Classes
C1-1 Shapes of nails: (a) round wire nails, (b) helical threaded nails, (c) annular ringed shank nails, (d) machine driven nails.
C1-3 Experimental load-slip curves for joints in tension parallel to the grain: (a) glued joints (12,5 103 mm), (b) split-ring (100 mm), (c) double sided toothed-plate (62 mm) (Hirashima, 1990), (d) dowel (14 mm), (e) bolt (14mm), (f) punched plate (104 mm), (g) nail (4,4 mm).
C1-4 Influence of the slenderness of the dowel on the load-slip behaviour of a timber to timber single joints in tension parallel to the grain.
C1-5 Joint modelling: (a) definitions of the parameters, (b) model for serviceability limit states, (c) and (d) models for ultimate limit states
C1-6 Joint details:
(a) splitting due to shrinkage,
(b) correct joint with oval shaped holes.
C1-7 Eccentricities in the structures due to the fasteners (a) or the members (c) and modified installations to avoid eccentricities (b), (d).